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  • 0x

    An open protocol for the peer-to-peer exchange of tokens on Ethereum. It is powered by the 0x (ZRX) token.

  • Aa
  • Aave (LEND)

    Aave is an open-source and non-custodial protocol to earn interest on deposits and borrow assets with a variable or stable interest rate. LEND token is the ERC20 compliant native governance token of the AAVE network.

    Address

    A unique combination of numbers and letters that is used to receive digital assets. Think of this like your email address — people can send you email to your address, but in this case, people can send crypto to your (online) address.

    Airdrop

    A method for distributing tokens to community members by sending them directly to their wallets. Airdrops are typically used by companies to create awareness around their project.

    Altcoin

    Any cryptocurrency that is not Bitcoin. The phrase stems from “Alternative Coin”, meant as coins created after Bitcoin.

    Amp (AMP)

    A digital collateral token for the Flexa network, a payment system that allows you to spend certain cryptocurrencies with select retailers at their brick and mortar locations.

    Anti-Money Laundering (AML)

    A set of rules and procedures that intend to prevent, notify, and enforce against money laundering. Read about how Gemini enforces AML rules.

    Application Programming Interface (API)

    A set of instructions a developer can use to incorporate features of an application into their own application(s).

    Auction

    A type of market that allows buyers and sellers to engage with each other with the benefits of elevated liquidity and price discovery. Read about Gemini’s Auction marketplace.

  • Bb
  • Balancer (BAL)

    Balancer is a non-custodial portfolio manager and automated market maker built on Ethereum that pools up to eight different tokens for users to trade. These Balancer pools are self-balancing weighted portfolios with specific triggers, and the Balancer protocol allows all Ethereum accounts to add tokens to existing public pools or create their own private pools.

    Basic Attention Token (BAT)

    Brave Browser, which is built to provide a more efficient and effective mechanism for connecting and rewarding users, advertisers, and publishers. Basic Attention Token (BAT) is its native utility token.

    bitcoin (btc)

    A cryptocurrency , which functions as a store of value, that can be directly transmitted between users on the Bitcoin Network. The term “bitcoin (BTC)” with a lowercase B denotes a unit within the Bitcoin Network.

    Bitcoin Cash (BCH)

    Bitcoin cash is a hard fork of the Bitcoin Network. Gemini only supports the Bitcoin Cash network. Our commentary on the listing of this asset on Gemini can be found here. Learn more about Bitcoin Cash (BCH).

    Bitcoin Network

    A peer-to-peer, decentralized network that allows users to send units of value to each other without any intermediary or bank. The term “Bitcoin” with a capital B denotes the network.

    Block

    A collection of transactions that are grouped together during a specific time period to move on their respective blockchains.

    Blockchain

    A decentralized system that keeps a public record of transactions (represented by time-sorted blocks) and ownership of digital assets. Think of this like a public accounting ledger that shows all the debits and credits to different accounts.

    Block Explorer

    A tool that lets you analyze blockchain information such as blocks, transactions, and addresses, usually with an intuitive user interface.

    Block Reward

    The reward given to people who facilitate mining blocks, typically paid out in the underlying digital asset.

    Block Trade

    A type of market that allows buyers and sellers to engage with each other outside of a continuous open order book. Block trading can be viewed as similar to Over-the-Counter “OTC” trades, as a buyer and seller are trading outside of a formal exchange.

    Bread (BRD)

    A cryptocurrency wallet and decentralized financial services platform. Bread (BRD) is a digital wallet, however, its application aims to accelerate mainstream adoption of cryptocurrencies by simplifying the process of purchasing, converting, and storing them.

  • Cc
  • Cardano (ADA)

    Cardano is a proof-of-stake blockchain platform for smart contract development. It is an open-source network that focuses on its background of academic research and positions itself as the first "third-generation" cryptocurrency, following after Bitcoin and Ethereum. ADA is the native token on the Cardano network, used for transacting and paying for smart contract operations.

    Caspian (CSP)

    A cryptocurrency trading platform designed for institutional traders. Caspian (CSP) provides users with an order and execution management system (OEMS), position management system (PMS), risk management system (RMS), and tools for compliance and reporting requirements.

    Chainlink (LINK)

    A decentralized network that provides reliable off-blockchain data for complex smart contracts on any blockchain. LINK is its native utility token. Learn more about Chainlink (LINK).

    Clearing

    A technology solution to help facilitate trades that are negotiated between two or more parties off-exchange prior to the actual execution.

    Cold Storage (Wallet or Offline)

    A wallet where digital assets are held offline, similar to a safe deposit box. Cold storage solutions are usually air-gapped, meaning they have never touched the internet.

    Compound (COMP)

    The governance token of the Compound system, an open-source platform that allows you to lend and earn interest, or borrow and pay interest, against your crypto. You earn small amounts of COMP token for participating in the platform, and holding COMP allows you to vote in changes to the protocol.

    Continuous Order Book

    A listing of parties interested in buying and/or selling assets and the specified quantity. A matching engine is used concurrently to pair buyers and sellers. The order book is updated in real time, hence the phrase “continuous”.

    Cosmos (ATOM)

    Cosmos is a proof-of-stake, multi-chain blockchain intended to facilitate data transfer among other blockchains. ATOM is the native token on the Cosmos network, used for staking, transaction payments, and governance voting.

    Cryptocurrency

    A digital asset that can be used as a medium of exchange, typically built with strong cryptographic security functions

    Curve (CRV)

    Curve is a decentralized exchange optimized for low slippage and low fee swaps between assets pegged to the same value. Curve is an automated market maker that operates similarly to Balancer, relying on liquidity pools and rewarding those who fund the pools, except it only deals with stablecoins. CRV is the governance token of Curve, and is also used to pay liquidity providers.

    Custody

    Holding and storing assets on behalf of the owner using offline, cold storage wallets.

  • Dd
  • Dai

    A decentralized, crypto-collateralized stablecoin that seeks to maintain a 1:1 soft-peg with the U.S. dollar. Learn more about Dai.

    Decentraland (MANA)

    A blockchain-based virtual reality platform. Decentraland is a virtual world where users can buy, develop, and sell LAND, a non-fungible ERC-721 token that represents the ownership of virtual land in Decentraland. MANA is the digital asset token used to pay for goods and services in Decentraland. Learn more about Decentraland (MANA).

    Decentralized

    A system that is not controlled by a single source or governing entity, but owned and managed by a wide independent assortment of parties.

    Decentralized Application (dApp)

    An application that is run on a decentralized network, like Ethereum.

    Decentralized Exchange (DEX)

    An exchange where trades settle directly on the blockchain as opposed to settling through a centralized third party. Dex’s can have a centralized matching engine or offer peer-to-peer swaps or a bulletin board for exchanging digital assets.

    Decentralized Finance (DeFi)

    An ecosystem of financial applications that are being developed on top of various blockchains. DeFi is trying to reimagine existing financial systems to be more transparent, permissionless, trustless, and interoperable. One of the metrics used to measure the growth of DeFi is the amount of ether (ETH) locked in smart contracts as collateral, a metric called “ETH locked in DeFi.”

    Derivative

    An agreement between parties where the value is derived from the underlying asset of the contract.

    Digital Asset

    The overarching phrasing for assets that exist in the digital world, e.g. cryptocurrencies, utility tokens, security tokens, digital stocks, digital collectables.

    Double Spend

    A key issue in the development of digital assets; the risk that a digital asset can be copied and re-used. The risk is mitigated by a mechanism in networks that verifies the authenticity of all transactions.

  • Ee
  • Encryption

    A layer of protection for digital data where a password is needed to access information.

    Enjin (ENJ)

    A platform that enables developers to create and manage games on the blockchain. ENJ is the digital asset token used to pay for digital goods and services on the Enjin platform. Learn more about Enjin (ENJ).

    EOS (EOS)

    EOS network is a smart contract and dApp development platform. Unlike many other networks EOS does not charge direct transactional fees for operations, rather anyone wishing to transact or run a dApp must obtain sufficient network capacity. EOS is the native token on the EOS network, used for voting and accessing network capacity.

    ERC-20

    A smart contract standard native to the Ethereum network used to issue tokens.

    ERC-721

    A smart contract standard native to the Ethereum network for non-fungible tokens.

    Ether (ETH)

    A digital asset that works similarly to Bitcoin. It is the main asset on the Ethereum network that is mainly used to pay transaction fees. Learn more about Ether (ETH).

    Ethereum Network

    A blockchain protocol that has additional functionality to run smart contracts. Learn more about Ethereum (ETH).

    Exchange

    A marketplace for buying and selling assets. Gemini is a full reserve exchange, meaning all orders are fully funded and we don’t offer margin trading.

    Exchange Traded Fund (ETF)

    An investment vehicle that can contain many types of assets that tracks an underlying index or asset. ETFs are usually traded on traditional securities exchanges. A digital asset ETF would allow investors to invest in the underlying digital asset without needing to manage the asset itself or deal with a cryptocurrency exchange.

  • Ff
  • Fiat

    Currency issued and backed by a government. For example, the U.S. dollar is considered a fiat currency.

    Filecoin (FIL)

    A cryptocurrency and blockchain platform that aims to provide a peer-to-peer file storage system. Learn more about Filecoin (FIL).

    Flexacoin (FXC)

    A payment network that allows users to spend crypto at brick-and-mortar retail stores. Flexacoin (FXC) is the digital asset token used to collateralize payments on the Flexa Network, making them instant and secure.

    Fork (Hard Fork)

    A software change where a blockchain network splits into a new blockchain, leaving the existing and new blockchain to run simultaneously. An example would be Bitcoin and Bitcoin Cash.

    Fork (Soft Fork)

    A backwards compatible software change to a blockchain that does not split into a new blockchain.

    Futures (Contract)

    An agreement to buy or sell an asset at a predetermined price and date in the future. The buyer has the obligation to buy the underlying asset at the expiration date and the seller has the obligation to sell the underlying at the expiration date.

  • Gg
  • Gas

    A fee for transactions on the Ethereum network paid to miners.

    Genesis Block

    The first block of a blockchain network.

    Golem (GNT)

    A decentralized super computer and peer-to-peer marketplace for computing power. Golem (GNT) currently operates as a decentralized alternative to the centralized cloud computing solutions provided by Amazon, Microsoft, IBM, and others.

  • Hh
  • Halving

    The technical term for when a block reward is cut in half (sometimes referred to as “Halvening”). A Bitcoin halving occurs every four years.

    Hardware Wallet

    A physical digital asset wallet where private keys are stored.

    Hash

    Creating a value using a mathematical function from a different set of values. Bitcoin uses the SHA-256 algorithm for this function.

    Hash Rate

    The rate at which miners compute hashes. The most common way to value hash rate is “hash per second”.

    Hot (Online) Wallet

    A wallet where digital assets are held online. Gemini uses a model of Hot, Cold, and Cryo wallets to store customers' assets.

  • Ii
  • Initial Coin Offering (ICO)

    A method of raising capital and promotion of a digital asset project by selling coins (or “tokens”) either privately or publicly to investors and users. Some ICOs have received criticism in the past for fraudulent activity and have been viewed as unregistered sales of securities by the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”).

    Insurance

    Some digital asset exchanges and service providers now provide insurance on customers assets in case of theft or malpractice. Gemini insures our hot wallet on behalf of customers' assets.

  • Kk
  • Keep Network (KEEP)

    Keep is a privacy layer for public blockchains allowing users and apps to privately transfer information from one party to another and store data in off-chain containers called “keeps.” KEEP is the token that powers Keep. It is a work token, which means that its holders have the right to perform major functions on the network.

    Know Your Customer (KYC)

    A compliance process instituted by regulators for businesses to verify the identity and level of risk of their customers.

    Kyber Network (KNC)

    A decentralized, on-chain liquidity protocol designed to make trading tokens simple, efficient, robust, and secure. Learn more about Kyber Network (KNC).

  • Ll
  • Ledger

    A data repository that tracks the movements and balances of assets. The Bitcoin network is a public ledger that is immutable and permanent and maintained by a decentralized network of node operators.

    Lightning Network

    A third-party network that sits, or layers, on top of the Bitcoin network to allow for faster and cheaper transactions. This network helps solve some of Bitcoin’s scaling problems.

    Liquidity

    The availability of assets that can be traded in a market. Highly liquid assets can be traded swiftly and without much change in price in a given market.

    Litecoin (LTC)

    A cryptocurrency introduced in 2011 using similar code to Bitcoin with the goal of easier usability than Bitcoin. Litecoin (LTC) is considered an alt-coin, as it doesn’t share the Bitcoin transaction history.

    Loom (LOOM)

    An Ethereum side-chain built to power a wide range of decentralized applications. Loom Network (LOOM) is a blockchain scaling project focusing on education and social applications.

  • Mm
  • Mainnet

    The live version of a blockchain network where the actual transactions take place. This is not to be confused with testnet, which is the network where developers can test different functions.

    Maker

    The governance token of the Maker Protocol that manages the Dai stablecoin. Maker (MKR) grants holders the ability to participate in the governance of the Maker Protocol.

    Market Capitalization

    The total market value of an asset based on the market price and number of coins in existence.

    Merkle Tree

    A structure used by Bitcoin and Ethereum blockchains that allows for efficient and secure verification of encrypted data. A Merkle tree summarizes all the transactions in a block by producing a digital fingerprint (i.e., a single hash) of the entire set of transactions.

    Mining

    The term used to describe how digital assets in proof of work networks are created and released to the public as well as how digital assets are moved on a blockchain. Mining is the process of solving complex mathematical computations to earn block rewards, i.e. mint new coins as well as moving blocks to process transactions.

    Mining Pool

    The pooling of resources and computing power to have an edge over other miners in order to earn (and split) the block reward with the pool of participants.

    Multi-Signature Wallet (Multi-Sig)

    A wallet in which multiple signatures are needed in order to facilitate a transaction. This model can provide extra security and governance features.

  • Nn
  • Node

    A software protocol that is used to help run and support a blockchain network. The Bitcoin network is supported by a collection of nodes that maintain the whole system.

    Nonce

    A one-time, arbitrary number that is added to a hash during the process of mining a block.

    Non-Fungible Token (NFT)

    A token that has unique properties or characteristics and is often used for digital collectibles.

    Numeraire (NMR)

    A hedge-fund that crowdsources predictive-trading algorithms via weekly competitions. Numeraire (NMR) conducts a weekly tournament that compensates data scientists for developing high-performing trading models.

  • Oo
  • OmiseGo (OMG)

    A peer-to-peer network for financial transactions across multiple asset classes such as fiat and cryptocurrency. Learn more about OmiseGo (OMG).

    Orchid (OXT)

    A peer-to-peer marketplace for virtual private networking (VPN) providers and users. OXT is its native utility token. Learn more about Orchid (OXT).

    Over-The-Counter (OTC)

    Digital assets that are being traded by a broker-dealer network as opposed to being traded on a centralized exchange.

  • Pp
  • Paper Wallet

    An offline crypto wallet that has both the public and private keys written on (usually) a piece of paper.

    PAX Gold (PAXG)

    A digital asset where every token is correlated at a 1:1 ratio to one ounce of actual, physical gold held in reserve. Each PAXG token is backed by one fine troy ounce (t oz) of a 400 oz London Good Delivery gold bar, stored in Brink’s vaults.

    Polkadot (DOT)

    Polkadot is a multi-chain blockchain intended to facilitate interoperability between other blockchains. DOT is the native token on the Polkadot network, used for transaction fees, governance, interoperability, and bonding.

    Private Key

    The secret string of data that controls the ability to move digital assets from one address to another.

    Proof of Stake (PoS)

    A method of validating blocks on a network where participants lock up tokens to validate blocks.

    Proof of Work (PoW)

    A method of validating blocks on a network where participants use processing power to validate blocks.

    Public Key

    A public facing string of data that is used in conjunction with a private key to authorize and send digital assets.

  • Rr
  • Ren (REN)

    The Ren Network is a decentralized dark pool system through which orders can be executed on-chain without exposing any sensitive order information. The Ren Network utilizes its own native token, REN, which primarily functions as a payment token to place order in the dark pool.

  • Ss
  • Satoshi Nakamoto

    An anonymous person or group of persons responsible for writing the Bitcoin whitepaper and creating the Bitcoin network.

    Security Token Offering (STO)

    A primary issuance of tokenized registered securities for the purposes of fundraising capital.

    Segwit (Segregated Witness)

    A process in which the block size limit/capacity on a blockchain is increased by removing signature data from transactions.

    SHA-256

    Secure Hash Algorithm that generates a unique 256 bit (64 character long) random sequence of letters and numbers (hash) out of any input to secure data. These algorithms are designed to be one-way functions that once they’re transformed into their respective hash values, it’s virtually impossible to transform them back into the original data.

    Sharding

    A way of partitioning to spread out the computational and storage workload across a peer-to-peer (P2P) network so that each node isn't responsible for processing the entire network's transactional load. Instead, each node only maintains information related to its partition, or shard (a small part of the whole).

    Smart Contract

    A computer protocol that directly controls the transfer of digital currencies or assets between parties under certain conditions and obligations. This will allow the performance of credible transactions without the use of third parties.

    Solana (SOL)

    Solana is a smart contract platform that aims to natively solve many of the scaling and throughput issues faced by other layer-1 blockchain solutions. SOL is the native token of the Solana network and is used for payment transactions on the network.

    Stablecoin

    A token pegged to a source of stability. Typically refers to tokens asset-backed by fiat currency but can also be backed by other cryptocurrencies or stabilized by an algorithm that adjusts for supply and demand. Read about Gemini’s stablecoin here.

    Staking

    In a blockchain network that is built using Proof of Stake (PoS), token owners create blocks and receive block rewards by “staking” their tokens to process transactions.

    Stellar (XLM)

    Stellar is a payments network aiming to connect global financial institutions via its native asset, the Stellar Lumens (XLM). XLM is the native token on the Stellar network, used to pay transaction fees, stop network spam, and provide liquidity via the Stellar Distributed Exchange.

    Storj (STOR)

    A decentralized, peer-to-peer cloud storage network. Storj (STOR) aims to connect users looking to purchase storage space with users who have hard drive space to sell.

    Synthetix (SNX)

    Synthetix is a decentralized trading ecosystem. It is built on the Ethereum blockchain as an asset issuance protocol, where users can create “synthetic” versions of stocks, crypto, or other financial instruments through smart contracts. SNX is its ERC20 compliant, native token.

  • Tt
  • tBTC

    tBTC is a Bitcoin-backed token pegged to the price of bitcoin. It allows holders to use bitcoin on the Ethereum blockchain and access the decentralized finance (DeFi) ecosystem.

    Testnet

    A sandbox or testing environment for a blockchain network that’s typically available before a mainnet launch for development purposes. An example is Ropsten for the Ethereum network.

    Tezos (XTZ)

    Tezos is a proof of stake blockchain platform that provides a decentralized, global computer on which developers can build decentralized applications (DApps). XTZ is the native token of the Tezos network, used for paying transaction fees on the network, staking, and earning rewards.

    Timestamp

    A digital record or log used to identify the moment in time that a transaction occurred.

    Token

    A general term that refers to a unit of value on a blockchain network. Examples include smart contracts built on the Ethereum network which can be fungible or non-fungible.

    Tokenize

    To create a token. Typically refers to creating a token based on traditional assets such as securities or real assets such as art and real estate.

  • Uu
  • Uma (UMA)

    Universal Market Access (UMA) is a protocol for the development, issuance, and settlement of derivatives for any underlying asset built on the Ethereum blockchain. UMA is the native token for the Universal Market Access project.

    Uniswap (UNI)

    Uniswap is a decentralized exchange that uses liquidity pools (LPs) to make markets instead of a typical order book. These pools are defined by smart contracts that facilitate the swapping of tokens and the adding of liquidity — there are no order books, centralized parties, or central facilitators. UNI is the governance token native to Uniswap.

    Unspent Transaction Output (UTXO)

    An output of a blockchain transaction that has not been spent and can be used as inputs for future transactions (i.e., Bitcoin uses the UTXO model). A way of organizing the blockchain’s ledger such that funds are not spent twice, in order to avoid the double spending issue.

  • Vv
  • Virtual Commodities Association (VCA)

    A proposed self-regulatory organization to govern cryptocurrency exchanges and custodians in the US established by Gemini, BitFlyer, BitStamp, and Bittrex.

    Virtual Commodity

    Virtual commodities like bitcoin and ether are “exempt commodities,” which means the CFTC puts them in the same category as metals and energy commodities including gold, silver, oil, and natural gas. The 2015 CFTC order against Coinflip, Inc stated that “Bitcoin and other virtual currencies” fall under the definition of a “commodity” as defined in Section 1a(9) of the Commodity Exchange Act of 1936 (CEA).

  • Ww
  • Wallet

    An application, device, physical medium or a service that stores private and public keys and interacts with various blockchains to enable users to send and receive digital currency and monitor their crypto-balances.

    Whitelist

    A list of addresses that are permissioned for transactions; addresses not included on the list are prohibited from transacting with. Typically whitelists are implemented for known addresses for security and compliance reasons.

    White Paper

    A document usually presented by the company to inform about technical specifications and/or to encourage investors to participate in the project.

    Wrapped Bitcoin (wBTC)

    wBTC was a collaborative effort created by BitGo, Ren, and Kyber Network. wBTC is a wrapped version of BTC, which means that it is backed 1:1 with bitcoin. This wrapped token brings the value of bitcoin into the Ethereum ecosystem.

    Wrapped Nexus Mutual (wNXM)

    Nexus Mutual is a Decentralized Autonomous Organization (DAO), which means that it gives its token holders the power of claims assessment, risk management, and governance. wNXM is a freely transferable wrapped version of NXM, the membership token native to Nexus Mutual.

  • Xx
  • XBT

    The ticker for the first ever bitcoin futures contract which was financially settled and listed on the Chicago Board Options Exchange (Cboe)’s Chicago Futures Exchange (CFE) book in 2017. The contract was discontinued in 2019.

    X-Connect

    A nickname for a direct-connect or cross-connect which refers to the technical functionality for a customer, typically a high frequency trader, to plug directly into an exchange’s matching engine in a data center to trade with lower latency.

    XRP (XRP)

    XRP is a digital currency aiming to provide a new means of money transfer between financial institutions. XRP is used to power Ripple's currency exchange product which allows institutions to easily transact and exchange value across multiple fiat currencies.

  • Yy
  • Yearn.finance (YFI)

    Yearn.finance is a decentralized aggregator of various lending protocols that optimizes for the highest yield. YFI is a governance token built on the Ethereum blockchain following the ERC20 standard, the native token YFI is used for governance over the network and is distributed exclusively through active participation and liquidity provision.

  • Zz
  • Zcash (ZEC)

    A digital asset with a decentralized blockchain that provides anonymity for its users and their transactions. Learn more about Zcash (ZEC).

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